3 interventions to improve out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival

The emergency-physician recommended steps to improve survival rates include better reporting and funding


WASHINGTON — Although survival rates for people who suffer cardiac arrest outside a hospital are extremely low in most places, emergency physicians propose three interventions to improve survival rates and functional outcomes in any community and urge additional federal funding for cardiac resuscitation research in an editorial published online in Annals of Emergency Medicine.

"As a nation, we are falling far short in our efforts to improve survival for this exquisitely time-sensitive medical emergency," said lead author Bentley J. Bobrow, MD. "We can and must do far better. The tools to do so are available right now and emergency physicians are uniquely positioned to lead this effort."

Taking a cue from a recently issued set of recommendations by the Institute of Medicine for optimizing cardiac arrest care, Bobrow and his team propose three steps communities and the nation can take to improve survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) above the current level of six percent:

  1. Development of a national cardiac arrest registry that accurately reports OHCA incidence and links process of care measures with patient outcomes in a standardized fashion.
  2. Encouragement of bystander CPR through education and training, along with training of 911 operators to guide bystanders through CPR with clear, standardized instructions while waiting for EMS to arrive.
  3. Fostering high-performance CPR by medical professionals by measuring the quality of CPR during resuscitations and continuously improving it.

The paper also identifies gross disproportional research funding for cardiac resuscitation compared to stroke research, blaming public underestimation of the dangers of cardiac arrest and the lack of financial incentive for improving survival rates.

"Between 1985 and 2009, federally funded studies per 10,000 deaths per year were 294 for stroke but only eight for cardiac resuscitation," said Bobrow. "Before we say to families 'we did everything we could,' we need to make sure it is true. Funding for cardiac resuscitation research must be a national public health priority."

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