Bell's palsy vs. stroke: What's the difference?
Here's a breakdown of differences in Bell's palsy and stroke symptoms and prehospital care differences
Bell's palsy and stroke symptoms can sometimes resemble each other, but the two couldn't be more different.
As a paramedic, it's important to be able to differentiate between the two while assessing a patient. Here's a breakdown of differences in Bell's palsy and stroke symptoms and prehospital care differences.
What is Bell's palsy?
Bell's palsy, according to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, is a form of temporary facial paralysis. When a patient is suffering from Bell's palsy, the facial nerve becomes disrupted and an interruption in messages to the brain results in facial weakness or paralysis.
The disorder, NINDS notes, isn't related to stroke. It is, however, the most common cause of facial paralysis. In rare cases, Bell's palsy can affect both sides of the face. Most often, it affects only one side of the face.
And for those who are wondering – Bell's palsy was named after Sir Charles Bell, a Scottish surgeon who made the connection to the condition.
What is a stroke?
A stroke, according to the American Stroke Association, occurs when a clot blocks a blood vessel that's carrying oxygen and nutrients to the brain. As a result, the brain can't get blood and oxygen and brain cells die.
There are two types of stroke:
1. Ischemic stroke: when a clot obstructs the flow of blood to the brain.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke: when a blood vessel ruptures, preventing blood flow to the brain.
A temporary clot causes transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a mini stroke.
Stroke, ASA notes, is the number five cause of death and leading cause of disability in the U.S.
Differences in symptoms
Symptoms of Bell's palsy vary depending on the case; they also range in severity from mild weakness to total paralysis.
|Stroke symptoms||Bell's palsy symptoms|
|Trouble walking, speaking and understanding||Twitching|
|Paralysis or numbness of the face, arm or leg||Weakness or paralysis on one side of the face; in rare cases, both sides of the face|
|Problems with coordination, stiff muscles, overactive reflexes or paralysis of one side of the body||Drooping of the eyelid and corner of the mouth|
|Fatigue, lightheadedness or vertigo||Dryness of the eye or mouth|
|Blurred vision, double vision, sudden visual loss or temporary loss of vision in one eye||Impairment of taste|
|Pins and needles or reduced sensation of touch||Excessive tearing in one eye|
|Difficulty swallowing||Pain or discomfort around the jaw and behind the ear|
|Headache||Ringing in one or both ears|
|Rapid involuntary eye movement||Headache, dizziness|
|Mental confusion||Difficulty eating or drinking|
Prehospital care differences
Once you've made your assessment on whether or not your patient is suffering from Bell's palsy or stroke, your next step is to provide proper prehospital treatment.
Prehospital treatment for stroke and Bell's palsy victims includes:
|Stroke victims||Bell's palsy victims|
|Asses the airway, breathing and circulation||Asses the airway, breathing and circulation|
|Determine the time of onset of symptoms||Determine the time of onset of symptoms|
|Perform a neurological exam||Perform a neurological exam|
|Check blood sugar||Focus your exam on the forehead|
|Establish an IV route, but don't give large amounts of fluid||Ask about recent viral infection|
|Establish a baseline 12-lead ECG||Ask about recent immunization|
|Reassure the patient, who is often times very anxious||Transport the patient as soon as possible|
|Transport the patient as soon as possible||Reassure the patient, who is often times very anxious|
|Give the receiving ED a head's up||Give the receiving ED a head's up|
Additionally, the COWS mnemonic can be used for examining a possible Bell's palsy patient:
C: Close eyes
O: Open eyes
W: Wrinkle forehead
And, if you're still unsure about a patient's assessment, ask your patient to raise their eyebrows. If a patient has Bell's palsy, their eyebrows will rise asymmetrically.